Class 12th Chemistry Notes Free PDF [ Punjab Boards ]


Class 12th Chemistry Notes

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All Chapters Class 12th Chemistry Notes

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Chapter 1- Periodic Classification Of Elements And Periodicity

1. Why ionic radii of negative ions are larger than parent atoms?  
 2. What are alkali metals? Give names of alkali metals. 
 3. What do you know about period 6 of the periodic table. 
 4. Why Na+ ion is smaller than Na atom? 
 5. Define the Periodic table. How many groups and periods are in it?
 6. Give two defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table. 
 7. Zn,Cd, Hg were placed along with alkaline earth metals in Mendeleev’s periodic table. How was this
confusion removed in the Modern periodic table? 
 8. What is Lanthanide contraction? How does it control the atomic sizes of elements of 6th and 7th
periods? 
 9. Define Mendeleev’s and modern periodic laws. 
 10. Give four improvements made in Mendeleev’s periodic law.  


Chapter 2-S-Block Elements

1. Give chemical formulae of mica and bauxite.
2. Give chemical formulae of kaolin and Feldspar.
3. Give two differences between lithium and other alkali metals. 
4. Differentiate between alkali and alkaline earth metals. Give one example in each case. 
5. Why is the aqueous solution of Na2CO3 alkaline in nature? 
6. How LiNO3 and NaNO3 differ in the application of heat. Give corresponding equations.
7. What happens when LiOH is heated to red hot? 
8. Solution of Na2O in water is alkaline. Justify the statement.
9. Why 2% gypsum is added into the cement? 
10. What happens when:? 
            a. Li2CO3 is heated 
            b. Na2CO3 is heated


Chapter 3-Group III A and Group IVA Elements

How does orthoboric acid react with; 
 a. Sodium hydroxide
 b. Ethyl alcohol 
2. How does boric acid react with 
     (a) Ethyl alcohol   (b) sodium carbonate. 
 3. Write the formulas of borax and colemanite.  
 4. How would you prepare borax from Colemanite? 
 5. What is boric acid? Give its uses. 
 6. Why carbon behaves differently from other members of its group? 
7. How weathering phenomenon converts potassium feldspar into clay?
 8. Give uses of lead suboxide. 
 9. Show that H3BO3 is a monobasic acid. 
 10. How Al finds its uses in metallurgy and photoflash bulbs?


Chapter 4-Group VA and Group VIA Elements 

1. Write a note on the manufacture of Nitric acid through Birkland and Eyde’s Process. 
2. How does Nitric acid react with Cu, Zn, Mg and Sn? 2021 
3. Give suitable examples to explain that sulphuric acid is good acid, oxidizing agent and dehydrating
agent. 
4. Why do the elements of VIA other than oxygen show more than two oxidation states? 
5. How does oxygen resemble sulphur?
OR
Differentiate between oxygen and sulphur.
OR
Compare oxygen with sulphur. 
6. Explain the contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.



Chapter 5-The Halogens And The Noble Gases

1. Write any two uses of bleaching powder. 
 2. What is the structural formula of Teflon? Mention its two uses
3. The elements of group VIIIA are called Nobel gases. Comment.
 4. How are halogen acids ionized in water? 
 5. Arrange the following oxy acids in the increasing order of acid strength. HClO4, HClO3, HClO2, HOCl 
 6. Why bleaching powder shows bleaching action?
7. Write four uses of halogens. 
 8. What is disproportionation reaction. Give an example. 
9. Write the disproportionation reaction of chlorine

Chapter 6-Transition Elements

What is Corrosion? How is a metal protected from Corrosion? 
 2. Define corrosion. Explain the electrochemical theory of corrosion. 
 3. Explain Bessemer’s process for the formation of steel. 
 4. Explain the following terms by giving examples.
 a. Ligands 
b. Coordination number 
c. Chelates 
d. Coordination sphere 
5. Explain the following properties of transition elements.
 a. Colour b. Chelates formation 
6. How does the electronic configuration of the valence shell affect the following properties of transition
elements.
 a. Paramagnetism b. Oxidation states 
7. Discuss the following properties of transition elements: 
 (i) Paramagnetism (ii) Colour 
8. Describe the following general characteristics of transition metals. Binding energies and Para
magnetism. 
 9. Write down any four properties of transition elements.  10.KMnO4 acts as an oxidizing agent. Give four reactions in support of your answer.  
11. Describe the manufacture of wrought iron from cast iron. 

Chapter 7-Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry

1. Define organic compound. Give any three features of organic compounds.
2. Write a note on the classification of organic compounds. 
 3. Differentiate between homocyclic and heterocyclic compounds with two examples in each case. 
 4. What do you know about the Cracking of petroleum? 
 5. Define cracking and give its types. 
 6. Explain the reforming of petroleum with the help of suitable examples. 
 7. Define sp3 and sp2 Hybridization. Give one example in each case. 
 8. Explain sp2 Hybridization along with describing the structure of Ethene. 
9. What is orbital Hybridization? Explain sp3 hybridization with an example. 
 10. What is orbital Hybridization? Explain sp hybridization with an example.

Chapter 8-Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

1. How can the following conversions be carried out.
a. Ethane to Methane b. Methane to ethane
 2. How would you prepare alkane from carbonyl compounds?
 3. Give one method of preparation for each of Ethane, Ethene and Ethyne. 
4. Explain the acidic nature of alkynes with at least two examples. 
 5. Convert (i) acetic acid into methane (ii) 1-Propanol to 1-Chloro-2-propanol. 
 

Chapter 9-Aromatic Hydrocarbons

1. Draw structural formulae of the following compounds: 
 i. m-Chlorobenzoic acid ii. 2,4,6-Trnitrotoluene iii. P-Dibenzylbenzene iv. P-Nitroaniline 
2. Discuss atomic orbital treatment to explain the structure of benzene. 
 3. Write three methods of preparation of benzene.
 4. What is meant by orientation in Benzene? Why certain substituents are ortho-para directive and others
meta-directive? Give one example of each.
 5. Describe the structure of Benzene on the basis of the resonance method.

Chapter 10-Alkyl Halides

1. Define β-Elimination reactions. Discuss in detail E1 reaction.
2. What are β-Elimination reactions. Differentiate between E1 and E2 reactions.
 3. Prepare Ethyl chloride from alcohols by using three different reagents.
 4. Convert ethyl bromide into:
 a. Ethane b. Propane c. Ethyl alcohol d. n-Butane 
5. Give all methods of preparation of alkyl halides. 
 

Chapter11-Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers

1. Write industrial preparation of Methanol. 
 2. Write the two reactions of alcohols in which O-H bond breaks.
 3. Discuss the acidic behaviour of phenol. 
 4. How can ethers be prepared by Williamson synthesis and from Ag2O? 
 5. Write two methods of preparation of Phenol. How does Phenol react with: 
 a. Conc. HNO3 b. Bromine Water 
6. How is ethyl alcohol prepared by the fermentation of molasses and Starch? 
 7. Give two methods of preparation of Phenol. 

Chapter 12-Aldehydes and Ketones

1. Write a note on the oxidation of aldehydes and ketones? 
 2. What types of aldehydes give Cannizzaro’s reaction? Give its mechanism. 
 3. Discuss the reaction of Ethanal and Propanone with 
a. Hydroxyl amine b. Phenyl hydrazine 
 4. Distinguish:  
 a. Acetaldehyde and propanone b. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde 
5. Discuss the Haloform reaction with one example.
1. Why first four members of aliphatic carboxylic acids are soluble in water? 
 2. What are fatty acids? How acid chlorides are made by them? 
 3. How carboxylic acid can be obtained from alkene? 
4. Why do mostly carboxylic acids exist as dimers? 
 5. Differentiate between acidic and basic amino acids. 
 6. Write structural formulae of Phthalic acid and Malonic acid.

Chapter 14-Macromolecules

1. How is Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prepared and give its uses? 
 2. What is the function of DNA and RNA? 
3. How is Nylon-6,6 prepared? 
4. Define enzymes. Write their two properties.
 5. Discuss the Saponification number. 
 6. Discuss the Saponification number and give an example. 


Chapter 15-Common Chemical Industries in Pakistan

To Download 12 Class Chemistry Notes for Chapter 15 Common Chemical Industries In Pakistan Click On The Following Link

Chapter 16-Common Chemical Industries in Pakistan

1. How water is disinfected by Chlorine? Write down the harmful effects of chlorination of water.
2. What will happen when the concentration of ozone will decrease? 
 3. Explain the process of incineration of industrial wastes.
4. What is acid rain? How does it affect our environment? 
5. Write methods for the purification of water. Explain the process of disinfection of water with chlorine. 
6. Discuss the term acid rain along with its effect on the environment. 
7. What is Acid Rain, and how does it affect our environment? 
8. Write a note on smog? 
9. Name the components of the environment. Give the approximate composition of the atmosphere and
lithosphere. 
10. Describe the natural and human sources of Nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides.

Class 12th Chemistry Notes Key Features

AlQalam provides the highest quality   FSC    Class 12 Notes of Chemistry that satisfy the new syllabus’s requirements for all Punjab boards. You may easily print these notes and study for your examinations since they are in the finest format. These notes are prepared by qualified teachers having experience of years in the 12th Class chemistry Book.
  • AlQalam Coaching Center uploaded the best quality Fsc Class 12th Chemistry notes that cover all the requirements of the new syllabus of all Punjab boards. 


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  • We have also added, MCQs Class 12th Chemistry Notes and solved exercises and important questions at the end of these notes.

  • Class 12th Chemistry Notes have 16 chapters and every chapter is well explained with short questions and MCQs.

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How To Use Class 12th Chemistry Notes?

To make the most of our Class 12th Chemistry Notes for Punjab Boards, follow these tips:
  1. Go through the notes chapter-wise, and try to understand the concepts thoroughly.
  2. Make notes in your own words, highlighting the key points and formulas.
  3. Solve the practice questions and examples at the end of each chapter, and compare your answers with the solutions given in the notes.
  4. Revise the notes regularly, and practice solving previous year’s question papers to get a better idea of the exam pattern.
  5. By following these steps, you can build a strong foundation in Chemistry and score good marks in your Class 12th exams.

Benefits Of Using Class 12  Chemistry Notes  

Here are some benefits of using our Class 12th Chemistry Notes for Punjab Boards:
  • Comprehensive coverage of all the topics in the syllabus
  • Easy-to-understand language and clear explanations
  • Practice questions and examples for each chapter
  • Saves time and effort in searching for study material online or offline
  • Helps in revising the concepts quickly before the exams

FAQs About 12th Class Chemistry Notes  

Q1. Are Class 12 notes Of Chemistry suitable for all Punjab Boards?

Yes, our Class 12th Chemistry Notes are designed as per the latest syllabus and exam pattern of all Punjab Boards, including AJK students.

Q2. Can I download the Class 12th Chemistry Notes for Punjab Boards?

Yes, you can download our notes in PDF format and access them offline as well. The download link will be provided once you make the payment.

Q3. Are these notes enough to score good marks in the exams?

Our Class 12th Chemistry Notes for Punjab Boards cover all the important topics from the syllabus and provide sufficient practice questions and examples. However, it is important to study consistently and revise regularly to perform well in the exams.

Q4. What is the cost of the Class 12th Chemistry Notes?

Class 12 Notes Of Chemistry is free of cost. 12th-class chemistry notes are free and will remains always free for the student of Pakistan  You can visit our website for more details.

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