Class 12th Biology Notes Free PDF For All Chapters


Class 12th Biology Notes

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Class 12th Biology Notes For Which Board?

These F.Sc Class 12th Biology Notes are for Punjab Boards and can be helpful for Federal Board (FBISE), and entry tests like MDCAT, NUMS and ETEA.

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The outdated biological treatises no longer accurately describe biology. The questions we raise today and the resources we use to find answers to them characterise it. Biology is becoming a field where data may be obtained at an exceptional rate in the early 21st century.

We have the technology to precisely alter genomes and randomly modify genes. With the use of our technologies, we are able to precisely measure biomolecules both in space and time.

To analyse these massive data sets, biologists increasingly use sophisticated computational techniques that are often adopted from physics and computer science.

These developments have created a fresh need for biologists who know how to use these quantitative tools and draw important biological conclusions from them.

We are thus thrilled about a new vision for biology education that attempts to teach both the quantitative abilities required for this new age of biology as well as the biology subject.

According to this vision, students would gain knowledge of biological phenomena via interesting tales about actual biological systems. These tales would offer both basic biological ideas and quantitative models that would explain how those processes function.

Students progress from learning about single molecules to cells and ultimately whole organisms with self-contained modules that are linked together into coherent courses using computational thinking.

Class 12th Biology Notes Chapters

Chapter 15 –Homeostasis

The
protection of the internal environment from the harms of fluctuations in the external
environment is termed homeostasis. 
Although Positive Feedback is needed within homeostasis, it also can be harmful at times. 

When you have a high fever it causes a metabolic change that can push the fever ‘ higher and higher. – An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 16 -Support And Movement

The thick filament which is about 16 mm in diameter is composed of myosin. Each .myosin molecule has a tail terminating in two globular heads. – An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 17 -Coordination And Control

All
the aspects such as organization, regulation, integration and control in the
constitution and work of the complex multicellular animals come under the fold
of the term coordination.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 18 -Reproduction

An anti-sperm antibody test looks for special proteins (antibodies) that fight against a man’s sperm in blood or semen. The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance only to the affected sperm. Semen can cause an immune response in- either man’s or a woman’s body.- An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 19-Growth And Development

In higher plants, growth is limited
o certain regions known as growing points e.g., shoot apex and root tip.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 20 -Chromosome And DNA

A typical chromosome consists of two strands called chromatids; each is made up of a long DNA molecule which is highly coded along with histone proteins. 

The
dispersive model predicted that parental DNA would become dispersed throughout
the new copy so that each strand of all the daughter molecules would a mixture
of old and new DNA.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 21 -Cell Cycle

The cell undergoes a sequence of changes, which
involve a period of growth, replication of DNA followed by cell division. This
sequence of changes is called the cell cycle.
– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 22 -Variation and Genetics

Phenotype
is the form of appearance of a trait. Genotype is the genetic complement i.e.,
the genes in an individual for a particular trait.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 23-Biotechnology

Genetically
engineered bacteria have been used to clean up environmental pollutants,
increase the fertility of the soil and kill insect pests. 
Transgenic
animals are cloned in order to obtain the product in large quantities.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 24 -Evolution

The tissue first influence inducing the development of a secondary embryo in the host. They termed this inductive event as primary induction because they believed it to be the first inductive event in development. – An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 25 -Eco System

The process through which different chemicals circulate between the environment and living
organisms in the form of a cyclic way is called the biogeochemical cycle. 
Or 

The
back-and-forth movements of chemical elements between organisms and the environment
along particular circular paths are known as biogeochemical cycles.– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 26 -Some Major Eco System

The angular distance on a meridian(circle
passing through poles) north or south of the equator, expressed in degrees and
minutes is called latitude. While height in relation to the equator is called
altitude.
– An Extraction from the Notes.

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Chapter 27 -Man His Environment

The process through which acid falls on Earth either dissolved in rain or as microscopic dry
particles are called acid rain.
– An Extraction from the Notes.

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